An Overview of Osteoporosis

An Overview of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a common disease that is characterized by low bone mass with microarchitectural disruption and bony fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. The goal of screening is to identify high-risk individuals for lifestyle modification and pharmacologic intervention to prevent the first fracture. Some estimates predict a continued rise in the number of hip fractures over the next 3-4 decades. Most fractures occur in women and men without osteoporosis by standard techniques. Osteopenia is the state in which there are far more people and they have a better bone mass than osteoporotic individuals, yet have more fractures. Validated risk factors are: Advanced age Previous fracture Low body weight ( less than 127 lbs ) Long-term steroid therapy Family history of hip fracture Cigarette smoking Excess alcohol intake It is recommended that these risk factors should be evaluated in all adults from a routine history and physical examination. Postmenopausal women, men over 60 and any individual who experiences a non traumatic or low impact fracture should be assessed for osteoporotic fractures. The present recommendations are to obtain Bone Mineral Density test ( DXA ) in all women above 65 years of age and older and postmenopausal women less than 65 years of age with risk factors. In conjunction with osteoporosis screening, individuals require counseling about lifestyle modifications and possible pharmacologic intervention. The following are standard guidelines for risk reduction counseling: Smoking cessation Limit alcohol intake Regular weight-bearing exercises Intake of supplemental calcium of 1200-1500 mg per day Vitamin D supplementation of 400-800 int. units per day. Higher doses have been advised in people at risk of deficient Vitamin...